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The following glossary provides brief descriptions of some key terms:

Cross Functional Accountability and Authority

Accountabilities and authorities among positions across functions. These include advising, service providing, coordinating, monitoring, stopping and prescribing. There is a related concept of Recommending policy, standards, procedures, and objectives. While this is actually direct output support work (DOS), it provides, in conjunction with monitoring, a “quasi governance” function within an organization. The essence of this is that a function head (e.g. CFO) recommends policy and, once approved, monitors compliance. Recommending policy is direct output support to the CEO. Once the policy is approved, the CEO provides the function head (e.g. CFO) with monitoring (cross functional) accountability and authority across the organization to ensure compliance with the policy. It should be noted that there are specific accountabilities and commensurate authorities.

Cross Over Point Manager

The lowest level manager position in the organization that has the accountability and authority for virtually all of the resources required to be successful in cross functional work. This position is accountable for setting the context and prescribed limits for the interactions and for establishing a conflict resolution mechanism.


A deliverable is an output produced by an employee. It should have a target completion time. Other parameters can include quality and quantity. It should be within context and prescribed limits of the manager, and have clarity about required resources. Deliverables may be recurring, project related, and/or achieving a specific target.

Information Processing Capability

There are three criteria in matching employees with positions. They are information processing capability, skilled knowledge and application. Information Processing Capability is the way in which an individual takes information, understands it, reasons with it, and makes plans and decisions. This is a capability that an individual carries, and can be seen when an individual is fully engaged in problem solving. Information Processing Capability is the maximum level or stratum at which the individual could work at the present time, given the opportunity to do so, having had the opportunity to gain the necessary skilled knowledge, and if that person applied himself or herself fully. Information processing capability matures over time.


A vertical stratified level in an organization with discrete boundaries. The boundaries define ranges of complexity of work as measured by time span analysis. Strata can be divided into sub strata of low, medium and high.

Time Span

Measure of complexity of work in a position. It is determined by the deliverable within the position that has the longest target completion time. The manager of the position establishes the Time Span of the position.

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